Situated Cognition

“The theory of situated cognition, as I present it here, claims that every human thought and action is adapted to the environment, that is, situated, because what people perceive, how they conceive of their activity, and what they physically do develop together. From this perspective, thinking is a physical skill like riding a bike. In bicycling, every twist and tum of the steering wheel and every shift in posture are controlled not by manipulation of the physics equations learned in school, but by a recoordination of previous postures, ways of seeing, and motion sequences. Similarly, in reasoning, as we create names for things, shuffle around sentences in a paragraph, and interpret what our statements mean, every step is controlled not by rotely applying grammar descriptions and previously stored plans, but by adaptively recoordinating previous ways of seeing, talking, and moving. All human action is at least partially improvisatory by direct coupling of perceiving, conceiving, and moving – a coordination mechanism unmediated by descriptions of associations, laws, or procedures. This mechanism complements the inferential processes of deliberation and planning that form the backbone of theories of cognition based on manipulation of descriptions. Direct coupling of perceptual, conceptual, and motor processes in the brain involves a kind of “self-organization with a memory” that we have not yet replicated in computer programs, or indeed in any machine.” (pp. 1-2),204,203,200_QL70_&dpSrc=srch

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