1. UNESCO가 정의한 리터러시
Literacy is the ability to identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate and compute, using printed and written materials associated with varying contexts.
Literacy involves a continuum of learning in enabling individuals to achieve their goals, to develop their knowledge and potential, and to participate fully in their community and wider society (UNESCO , 2004; 2017).
2. OECD의 리터러시 개념
Many previous studies have treated literacy as a condition that adults either have or do not have. The IALS no longer defines literacy in terms of an arbitrary standard of reading performance, distinguishing the few who completely fail the test (the “illiterates”) from nearly all those growing up in OECD countries who reach a minimum threshold (those who are “literate”). Rather, proficiency levels along a continuum denote how well adults use information to function in society and the
economy. Thus, literacy is defined as a particular capacity and mode of behaviour:
the ability to understand and employ printed information in daily activities, at home, at work and in the community – to achieve one’s goals, and to develop one’s knowledge and potential.
3. PISA의 Reading, mathematical, and scientific literacy 개념
Definition: Reading literacy is defined in PISA as the ability to understand, use and reflect on written texts in order to achieve one’s goals, to develop one’s knowledge and potential, and to participate effectively in society.
Mathematical literacy is defined in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) as the capacity to identify, understand and engage in mathematics, and to make well-founded judgements about the role that mathematics plays in an individual’s current and future private life, occupational life, social life with peers and relatives, and life as a constructive, concerned and reflective citizen.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) defines scientific literacy as the capacity to use scientific knowledge, to identify questions, and to draw evidence-based conclusions in order to understand and help make decisions about the natural world and the changes made to it through human activity.
Education at a Glance, OECD, Paris, 2002, Glossary
4. 위키피디아의 정의
Dictionaries traditionally define literacy as the ability to read and write. In the modern world, this is one way of interpreting literacy. One more broad interpretation sees literacy as knowledge and competence in a specific area.[need quotation to verify] The concept of literacy has evolved in meaning. The modern term’s meaning has been expanded[by whom?] to include the ability to use language, numbers, images, computers, and other basic means to understand, communicate, gain useful knowledge, solve mathematical problems and use the dominant symbol systems of a culture. The concept of literacy is expanding across OECD countries to include skills to access knowledge through technology and ability to assess complex contexts. A person who travels and resides in a foreign country but is unable to read or write in the language of the host country would be regarded by the locals as illiterate. (이하 생략)
5. 한국어 위키백과의 ‘문해’
문해(文解) 또는 문자 해득(文字解得)은 문자를 읽고 쓸 수 있는 일 또는 그러한 일을 할 수 있는 능력을 말한다. 넓게는 말하기, 듣기, 읽기, 쓰기와 같은 언어의 모든 영역이 가능한 상태를 말한다. 유네스코는 “문해란 다양한 내용에 대한 글과 출판물을 사용하여 정의, 이해, 해석, 창작, 의사 소통, 계산 등을 할 수 있는 능력”이라 정의하였다. 유의어로는 글이나 글자를 안다는 뜻의 식자(識字)가 있다.
6. 미국의 초중등교육법 (the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)) 상에 나오는 주요 리터러시 용어 둘
“Comprehensive literacy instruction”:
Sec. 4103 Definitions, pp. 358-359 states that “The term comprehensive literacy instruction means instruction that incorporates effective literacy instruction and is designed to support developmentally appropriate, contextually explicit, systematic instruction, and frequent practice, in reading across content areas; and developmentally appropriate and contextually explicit instruction, and frequent practice, in writing across content areas.”
“Effective literacy instruction”:
“Effective literacy instruction” is divided into “general,” “birth through kindergarten,” and “kindergarten through grade 12.” The points under each of the three divisions are expressed here with exact wording from the bill.