1. Delexical verbs
위키피디아에서는 Light verb 항목에 나와 있다. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_verb)
a. Sam did a revision of his paper. – Light verb construction
b. Sam revised his paper. -Full verb
a. Larry wants to have a smoke. – Light verb construction
b. Larry wants to smoke. – Full verb
a. Jim made an important claim that…. – Light verb construction
b. Jim claimed that… – Full verb
a. Mary is taking a nap. – Light verb construction
b. Mary is napping. – Full verb
2. Modal items
English Modal auxiliary의 종류는 다음 링크에 잘 설명되어 있다.
이 항목들을 왜 modal auxiliary라고 부르는지 살펴보면 좋겠다.
The verbs in this list all have the following characteristics:
They are auxiliary verbs, which means they allow subject-auxiliary inversion and can take the negation not,
They convey functional meaning,
They are defective insofar as they cannot be inflected, nor do they appear in non-finite form (i.e. not as infinitives, gerunds, or participles),
They are nevertheless always finite and thus appear as the root verb in their clause, and
They subcategorize for an infinitive, i.e. they take an infinitive as their complement
3. stance words
“In linguistics, stance is the way in which speakers position themselves in relation to the ongoing interaction, in terms of evaluation, intentionality, epistemology or social relations.”
“Linguistic and non-linguistic forms and strategies that show a speaker’s commitment to the status of the information that he or she is providing.”
4. Discourse markers
“In linguistics, a discourse marker is a word or phrase that is relatively syntax-independent and does not change the truth conditional meaning of the sentence, and has a somewhat empty meaning.Examples of discourse markers include the particles “oh”, “well”, “now”, “then”, “you know”, and “I mean”, and the connectives “so”, “because”, “and”, “but”, and “or”.
In Practical English Usage Michael Swan defines a ‘discourse marker’ as ‘a word or expression which shows the connection between what is being said and the wider context’. For him, a discourse marker is something that either connects a sentence to what comes before or after, or indicates a speaker’s attitude to what he is saying. He gives three examples: on the other hand; frankly; as a matter of fact.”
5. Basic nouns
가장 자주 나오는 단어 100개 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Most_common_words_in_English
cf. General Service List http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Service_List
New General Service List http://www.newgeneralservicelist.org/
Most frequent letters http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frequency_analysis
6. General deictics
“A word or phrase (such as this, that, these, those, now, then) that points to the time, place, or situation in which the speaker is speaking. Also known as deixis. Deixis is expressed in English by way of personal pronouns, demonstratives, and tense.” (http://grammar.about.com/od/d/g/deicticterm.htm)
7. Basic adjectives
cf. fine/great 등은 기본 형용사이면서 매우 높은 빈도수 기록. 대답하는 역할을 하기 때문.
8. Basic adverbs
9. Basic verbs
— 이상의 분류는 O’Keeffe, McCarthy, & Carter. (2007). From Corpus to Classroom. Cambridge.의 2장에 따른 것입니다. 위의 목록은 빈도 최상위에 속하는 약 2000 단어를 분류한 결과입니다.